ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. Here in this blog, we will study Everything You Need to Know About ADHD.
What is ADHD?
ADHD is a short form of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. A person having this condition might show symptoms like impulsivity, inattentiveness, and hyperactivity. Though the exact symptoms differ from person to person, they all share these common traits of not paying attention to a given task for prolonged periods.
Both adults and children can have ADHD, but the symptoms are more common in children than in adults. People with this condition have difficulty managing time, setting goals, being organized, and holding down a job.
The symptoms of ADHD seems to decline with the aging of a person. Though some adults show significant signs of ADHD that interfere with their day to day life, most of them do not have severe difficulties due to ADHD.
Most people aren’t aware that they have some level of ADHD. The main symptoms of ADHD consist of the inability to focus on a given task, feeling hyperactive, and impulsive.
Some other symptoms of ADHD might include:
- Poor time management skills
- Poor planning skills
- Hot temper
- Excessive activity
- Frequent mood swing
- Low frustration tolerance
- Problem completing tasks
- Problem focusing on a task
- Trouble coping with stress
- Disorganization and prioritizing problems
Types of ADHD
We can categorize ADHD in three major categories or types according to the symptoms a person exhibits.
1. Predominantly Inattentive
Individuals who show symptoms such as difficulty paying attention to details, finding it hard to follow instructions or conversation, etc. come under this category. It is easy for these people to get distracted or forget details about their work.
2. Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive
People in this category have a difficult time staying still; they have a constant urge to do something. These people fidgets and talks a lot. Children with ADHD might run and jump or climb on things regularly. These individuals feel restless and may interrupt others or speak of turn or at inappropriate times.
Those who show all the symptoms of the first and second category comes under this combined category.
Though a person might show only one type of symptoms or another, these can change over time.
What Causes ADHD?
There are no exact known causes of ADHD, but research in the field continues to determine the main reason involved in the onset of ADHD in adults and children. Some of the factors that might result in the development of ADHD include:
- Genetics can play paly an essential role in the onset of ADHD in a person. If a family member has ADHD, then chances of developing the symptoms increase significantly.
- Problems with the central nervous system during the development of a child might lead to ADHD.
- The environment can also be a significant factor in increasing the risk of ADHD. For instance, exposure to substances like lead may contribute to the develop symptoms of ADHD.
- The risk of ADHD also increases in children whose mothers smoke or drink alcohol during pregnancy.
ADHD Treatment and Medication
There is no cure for ADHD, but various treatments can help with the symptoms and improve the person’s day-to-day functioning. A doctor might prescribe medication, training or education therapy, or a combination of several treatments.
According to many researchers, stimulants can help reduce the symptoms of ADHD. These medications can increase the level of dopamine in the brain, which plays an essential role in attention and thinking.
These medications usually take longer to start working as compared to stimulants but help achieve the same result as stimulants. The doctor might prescribe a non-stimulant if the patient faces adverse effects after using a stimulant, or stimulant turns out to be ineffective for the patient.
Though the FDA does not approve these types of medications for the treatment of ADHD, doctors often prescribe them to adults with ADHD. Antidepressants such as tricyclics help treat ADHD symptoms because they act as stimulants and affect the concentration of the brain chemicals dopamine and norepinephrine.
Therapy & Education and Training
Therapy alone might not help much to reduce the symptoms of ADHD, but combining therapy with medication has an overall positive effect. Different types of treatment & education and training available for ADHD include the following:
- Parenting skills training
- Support groups
- Stress management techniques
- Keeping routines
- Breaking large tasks into small segments of manageable tasks
- Organizing everyday items
- Giving rewards to children when they follow the rules